Manas. Studies into Asia and Africa.

Electronic Journal of the Centre for Eastern Languages and Cultures
Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”


The name Manas is a polysemantic and emblematic of the Indian spiritual culture philosophical concept. Translated from Sanskrit, it means "mind; spirit, soul, heart; thought; intellect; concept; desire, intention; will" etc. We believe that in its multiple layers of meaning, the term epitomizes the quintessence not only of Indian but of Eastern wisdom. At the same time, it encompasses the idea of natural human curiosity that constitutes the very core of every research.

1. Open Access Policy

Manas is an open access electronic journal: the full text of the articles is freely available to readers, in an online and an offline format, immediately upon publication.  


The journal does not impose charges on authors for publishing their articles.   

NB! Creative Commons license terms for reuse do not apply to any content not original to the open access article.

2. Editorial Policy

2.1. Types of publication

Manas publishes research articles and book reviews. The languages of publication are English and Bulgarian. 

A research article should present the results of original research which makes a clear theoretical, methodological, or empirical data analysis contribution to one of the subject areas of interest for the journal. The description of data should be analytical, based on current theoretical concepts and methodologies.

A book review should present a summary and evaluation of the content of the book, which also contextualizes it in terms of the current scholarly debate. The book should have been published not earlier than three years before the submission of the review.  

The journal comprises also a Chronicles section in which it publishes informative texts about academic events, anniversaries and other special occasions related to the research and teaching of Asian and African societies, cultures and languages. The texts in this section are not research articles and are not subjected to scientific reviewing.

2.2. Publication frequency

Manas publishes two issues per year, in May and November.   

Manuscripts can be submitted throughout the year. 

The editorial process takes between 4 and 6 months, depending on the recommendations of the reviewers. 

The editorial team is willing to consider well-grounded proposals for guest edited special issues.   

2.3. Evaluation procedure

Manas applies the double blind type of peer review. 

Before entering the peer review stage, the submitted manuscript is considered by one of the editors, who has the right to reject the manuscript in one or more of the following cases:

  • it is outside the scope of the journal;
  • it does not meet the journal’s standards regarding originality, authenticity, formatting, language. 
  • it contains clear evidence of research misconduct.

If approved by the editor, the manuscript is sent to two reviewers, who are asked to: 

  1. comment on: 
  • the originality of the thesis; 
  • the appropriateness of the theoretical background and the methodology;
  • the relevance of the supporting evidence (data);
  • the composition, style, language 
  • ethical considerations (acknowledging sources, processing data, etc.)
  • the significance to the field, potential positive impact;
  1. recommend improvements (if relevant);
  2. recommend acceptance or rejection. 

The final decision is taken by the editor. The following types of decision are possible: 

  1. acceptance without revision; 
  2. acceptance with minor revision; 
  3. acceptance with major revision;
  4. rejection. 

A manuscript is rejected on this stage in one of the following cases:

  • Both reviewers recommend rejection; 
  • One or both reviewers present clear evidence for research misconduct.    

In case of decisions (b) or (c), the manuscript is returned to the author for revision, together with clear instructions about the type and scope of revision needed.

The manuscripts are ready for publication when the final proofreading has been performed by the authors, and all concerns have been resolved. 

If any errors are detected in the published material, they should be reported to the Editor. 

2.4. Reconsideration of rejected manuscripts

If an author finds the arguments for rejecting their manuscript not convincing enough, s/he can ask for a reconsideration of the decision in a letter to the Editor-in-chief. The latter discusses the rejection decision with the section editor who took it, and they take a final decision about the manuscript.   

3. Publishing Ethics

Manas is committed to high ethical standards of scholarly publishing. Editors, reviewers, and authors are asked and guided to complying with the standards of ethical publishing developed by international organizations such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)  and the Council of Science Editors (CSE)

3.1. Editors are expected:

  1. to accept or reject a paper for publication on the basis of the paper’s scientific merits and relevance to the remit of the journal;
  2. to treat all authors with fairness, objectivity, honesty, and transparency; 
  3. to respect the confidentiality of the editorial process;
  4. to try to prevent situations of conflicting interests between the participants in the editorial process; 
  5. to make editorial decisions with reasonable speed and communicate them in a clear and constructive manner; 
  6. to pay attention to and handle all allegations and findings of research misconduct
  7. to publish corrections and retract published articles in case research misconduct has been brought to their attention after the publication of an article;
  8. to abstain from organizing by themselves the editorial process for their own manuscripts. 

3.2. Reviewers are expected

  1. to accept an assignment only if they have adequate expertise to provide an authoritative assessment; 
  2. to inform the editor in case a competing or conflicting interests situation may arise; 
  3. to adhere to the instructions and time limits for completing a review; 
  4. to respect the confidentiality and anonymity of the review process; 
  5. to provide unbiased feedback on the scholarly merits and the scientific value of the work, abstaining from personal criticism; 
  6. to express their judgments clearly and support them with enough evidence; 
  7. to notify the editor of suspected research misconduct; 

3.3. Authors are expected 

  1. to submit original studies for consideration; 
  2. to abstain from submitting a manuscript to several journals at the same time;
  3. to abstain from submitting texts that have already been published, on their own or as parts of larger publications;  
  4. to confer to the journal the rights needed for publishing the manuscript;
  1. to respect the confidentiality and anonymity of the review process; 
  1. to provide proper attribution when using parts/ideas from previously published own work or work of others;
  2. to provide written permission from each individual identified as a source of unpublished data or an opinion expressed in personal communication; 
  3. to provide written permission from any potentially identifiable individuals referred to or shown in photographs in the manuscript;
  4. to provide permission to use/reproduce any copyrighted content used in the submitted manuscript;
  5. to provide copies of cited manuscripts that are submitted to or in the press by other journals; 
  6. to be ready to provide to the editor a digital copy of the data, on which the study is based;


3.4. Handling allegations for research misconduct.

Research misconduct generally falls into one of the following areas: 

  • falsification and fabrication of data;
  • piracy and plagiarism; 
  • mistreatment of research subjects. 

More information can be found on the website of COPE

When a manuscript under consideration raises suspicions of research misconduct, an investigation is conducted with the participation of the editor handling the manuscript, the Editor-in-chief, and a member of the editorial board with appropriate expertise. In case the suspicions are confirmed, the manuscript is rejected. The author is informed of the decision and the grounds for taking it. 

If research misconduct is identified after the article has been published, the article is retracted and an explanation of the Editor-in-chief is published.